Thursday, July 2, 2020

business development plan - 3300 Words

business development plan (Essay Sample) Content: Techwork Solutions Ltd Marketing plan Name Date Contact Table of contents Title page........................................................................................................................1 Table of contents............................................................................................................2 TOC \o "1-3" \h \u HYPERLINK \l _Toc22427 Executive Summary PAGEREF _Toc22427 3 HYPERLINK \l _Toc29442 Value Propositions PAGEREF _Toc29442 5 HYPERLINK \l _Toc26326 Customer Segments PAGEREF _Toc26326 7 HYPERLINK \l _Toc10804 Channels PAGEREF _Toc10804 8 HYPERLINK \l _Toc28862 Customer Relations PAGEREF _Toc28862 9 HYPERLINK \l _Toc25509 Key Activities PAGEREF _Toc25509 10 HYPERLINK \l _Toc3597 Key Resources PAGEREF _Toc3597 11 HYPERLINK \l _Toc16746 Key Partners PAGEREF _Toc16746 12 HYPERLINK \l _Toc7108 Social Causes PAGEREF _Toc7108 12 HYPERLINK \l _Toc19158 Cost Structure PAGEREF _Toc19158 13 HYPERLINK \l _Toc28912 Revenue Streams and Pricing PAGEREF _Toc28912 14 HYPERLINK \l _Toc23455 Public Relations and Advertising PAGEREF _Toc23455 14 HYPERLINK \l _Toc24524 Social Media PAGEREF _Toc24524 15 HYPERLINK \l _Toc13578 Additional Metrics PAGEREF _Toc13578 16 Executive Summary Techwork Solutions Ltd is a privately owned company located in New York City in the United States of America. The company mainly deals in computer supplies and maintenance. The company has operated in the United States for over ten years, registering high profits and customer reviews. The company's main aim is to overcome bad service delivery as has been experienced by many computer users in America, by presenting a more professional, timely and cost-effective delivery option to these clients. The company serves a total of twenty states within the USA , with plans to expand its services to the whole of the nation by the end of the decade. The company prefers to sell directly to clients. This channel has been widely acceptable to customers since they are able to relate to the company agents one-on-one, and any problems with goods and services can be solved within a short time. Techwork Solutions Ltd is keen on establishing and maintaining an excellent working relationship with its clientele, regularly seeking feedback from them to know what they should change or uphold. The company has invested heavily into gifting regular customers, recognizing new customers and maintaining high levels of service delivery. For the company to succeed, the suppliers, financiers, customers, employees, and management are required, and their harmony with the activities of the company highly appreciated. Some of our partners include suppliers and competitors. Some of the social causes for the operation of Techwork Solutions Ltd include regional segregation, unfair pricing of goods by unscrupulous sellers, cyber bullying, pirating of software programs among others. Top on our list of costs include the acquisition of raw materials, payment of wages and business premises rent and maintenance. Through our increased sales and extensive market share, the company is able to raise enough returns to take care of daily operations and future prospects. Techwork Solutions Ltd advertises through television, radios, newspapers and marketing banners placed at strategic places in major towns. In order to maintain a good reputation while conducting social media advertising, Techwork Solutions Ltd has set aside a special group of employees who specialize in examining the rules governing usage of different social media platforms and seeks to abide by those rules. The performance metrics of Techwork Solutions Ltd can be increased by considering factors such as the profit per employee and LOB expense versus budget metrics. Value Propositions Computer supplies and maintenance is very important to the American society, mainly because people are embracing technology at a high rate. Techwork Solutions Ltd professional computer maintenance ensures that the integrity of computers is conserved whenever a computer develops problems. When computers are handled by professionals, their state remains uncompromised, while the information in the computers remains private as employees of the company are not allowed to tamper with private information stored in client's computers. In addition, it is possible to follow and understand the nature of problem a computer has when it is sold and maintained by the same firm. The supply and maintenance services address the issue of information pilferage by backstreet electronic repairers, exchange of goods parts with faulty ones and unreasonably high pricing. Computer supply and maintenance involves delivering newly purchased computers to businesses, personal premises and social places such as schools, hospitals, and banks. The computers are completely new, tested and proven to be ready to use. Once the computers are delivered to the buyers, the company offers software installation for free to the clients. Most of the software programs installed are aimed at protecting the user from cyber bullying or attacks by hackers, hardware breakdown, and virus infections. The company establishes a relationship with the buyers where they are called upon to carry out a regular maintenance to ensure the computers are in the best possible condition for use. This maintenance includes replacement of faulty cables, screens, keyboards, mouses and blowing of the computers to ensure they are not dusty. The service delivery model described above is more consumer friendly than those offered by other companies. First, the free software installation makes the company's services more appealing since most users do not understand the kind and nature of software programs to install on their new computers. In addition, customers feel safe to use the company's products since they are installed with protective measures before customers begin to use them. One of the strengths of the company is its positive reputation and customer relations. Due to the extent to which the company is committed to ensuring customer satisfaction and device safety, Techwork Solutions Ltd has gained profound positive review increasing its reputation. In addition, the free services and delivery have made the company the favorite of many clients. The quick response of the company to buyers' requests is also a strength. This quickness is mainly due to the sales model where customers can order products online, and pay t hrough simple steps, then the goods are delivered right to their doorsteps. These strengths are threats to medium sized repair and maintenance firms since they might not be able to have such ordering and delivery systems neither the offering of free services, prompting clients to go for the cheapest and easiest most convenient seller. One of the weaknesses of our services includes the dynamic nature of knowledge the computer hackers have, which required the company to carry out regular software changing to ensure the devices are unreachable by hackers. This places the company at a disadvantaged position from competition by other forms with more advanced protection schemes. In order to achieve the goals mentioned above, the company should come up with a policy whereby customers who allow other electronic repairers to tamper with their devices can not access the subsidized maintenance costs and will be treated as new customers. For those who have stuck to the company's services, services should be subsidized. In addition, the company should educate its staff and set strict rules against tampering with clients' personal information during servicing of devices. Customer Segments Techwork Solutions Ltd serves ready-to-buy customers, potential customers, repeat customers and impulse buying customers. The ready-to-buy customers know exactly what they need from the company. A potential customer is in no hurry and rarely makes a purchase unless some marketing strategy is applied to attract them. The repeat customers regularly use our products and enjoy a high deal of satisfaction. Impulse buying customers buy our products without prior planning, only because one of our marketing strategies caught their attention while they were doing something else. The products of this company are aimed at solving issues for all the customer segments. Potential buyers are often not sure of where, when or which products to buy, ready-to-buy customers need an easy transaction and delivery, repeat customers need device maintenance while impulse buying customers need best terms and quality of goods to be attracted. The quality of products offered by Techwork Solutions Ltd both durin g purchase and after purchase effectively caters for the needs stated above for the different segments. The security of devices, safe delivery, terms of operation, pricing and subsidized maintenance are acceptable for all. The company goes a further step to offer free training on computer maintenance to long-time repeat customers and surprise discounts to potential buyers. Channels The company majorly uses a direct selling channel to carry out business with customers. This channel is effective since it enables close interaction with consumers of the company's products. The company can also adopt a reverse channel strategy for products returned by customers. To maximize profit from the direct selling channel, the company could develop a system where goods from customers within the same locality that are bought within one week are transported on a single day instead of transporting every single order to the specific customer. This move will drastically reduce the expenses involved in direct selling, hence increasing the returns from such a channel. In addition, the company ...

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Ebola Virus Outbreak Of West Africa - 1592 Words

Imagine being isolated from your friends and family, suffering from an illness that feels as though something is burning through your body, while watching people around you dying of the same illness and wondering when it will be your turn to proverbially â€Å"kick the bucket†. For many survivors of the Ebola disease, this situation would be far too familiar. In March 2014, the Ebola virus outbreak began in West Africa, mainly in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea. According to a recent figure from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there have been a total of 28616 Ebola cases and 11310 deaths from Ebola in these three countries (2014). There were many unpalatable symptoms of the disease, such as â€Å"fever, headache, joint and muscle pain, widespread bleeding, diarrhea and other physical symptoms leading to high mortality† (Van Bortel). If one is lucky enough to survive this virus, however, there are just as many negative results of the virus as ther e were symptoms. Many West African survivors have to deal with their new negative image, negative lasting health effects, or a decrease in financial stability due to their inability to work or find work after they recover. Now that the West African Ebola epidemic is over, (Liberia) there remains the task of assimilating the survivors back into their societies. Moreover, the best solution to counteract the effects of the Ebola virus on survivors is to expand upon the Ebola-survivor-support organizations already in place.Show MoreRelatedEbola Virus Disease ( Evd )820 Words   |  4 PagesEbola Virus Disease (EVD), formally known as Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever, which is a severe, often fatal illness in humans. This virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spread in human population through human transmission. The Ebola Virus Disease case rate is about 50% and they have varied from 25% to 90% in the past outbreaks. Ebola Virus causes an acute, serious illness which is often fatal if it is not treated, the virus first appeared in 1976 in 2 simultaneous outbreaks. One in whichRead MoreThe Ebola Virus And Its Effects On The United States1133 Words   |  5 Pagesdangerous than many threats received. The ebola virus took the world by storm after it was carried to the United States and spread by people who had visited West Africa. This virus was all the more deadly as it often took hours for any symptoms to occur. In this time the Center for Disease Control spent much time and many resources looking for answers to the many questions they had. Under the time constraint and scrutinizing public, they had to determine what ebola was, what it did and its effects on theRead MoreEbola Virus Disease ( Ebv )1323 Words   |  6 PagesEbola virus disease (EBV), or just Ebola, is an acute, often fatal illness, with a case fatality rate of up to 90%. It is one of a number of haemorrhagic fever diseases. Ebola is a single-stranded RNA virus with an unusual, variable-length, branched morphology. The helical capsid is enclosed inside a membrane.. It is one of the world’s most virulent diseases. The Ebola virus is a member of the Filoviridae family. There are 5 known subtypes of Ebola. The infection is transmitted by direct contactRead MoreThe Epidemic Of South Africa1286 Words   |  6 Pagesrecent Ebola outbreak, which has been imported from West Africa to the United States, it had become apparent that any infectious illness that occurs anywhere is not just the issue of the country in which it originated, but is indeed a global issue. This outbreak has also shone a light on the pressing health and health care issues in West Africa that contribute to the spread of illness. A lack of access to care, deficit in trained healthcare professionals, lack of preparedness to handle outbreaks, unsanitaryRead MoreInfectious Diseases And The Epidemic Essay1273 Words   |  6 Pagesand more recently, The Ebola virus and the HIV-AIDs epidemic. Ebola was first discovered in humans in 1976 with 2 simultaneous outbreaks. In Nzara, Sudan, and in Yambuku Democratic Republic of Congo. The name Ebola comes from the river which is near Yambuku in Congo. The virus causes a serious illness which could be fatal in untreated as the virus infects the cells of the immune system and the liver. The 2014 outbreak of the disease was the largest and most complex outbreak since the disease wasRead MoreThe Mortality Rate Of Ebola1128 Words   |  5 PagesEbola is one of the most deadly diseases known to man. The mortality rate of Ebola ranges from 25% to 90% (World Health Organization [WHO], 2014; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2010; Cowart, 2014). There is no cure for Ebola and no vaccine to prevent its spread (WHO, 2014; CDC, 2010; Cowart, 2014). The virus itself is spreads between organisms through bodily fluids, such as blood and vomit, which are shed by an infected individual (WHO, 2014; CDC, 2010). These fluids typicallyRead MoreEbola Virus Disease : History, Transmission Pathogenesis951 Words   |  4 PagesEbola Virus Disease: History, Transmission Pathogenesis The Ebola virus disease (EVD) was initially discovered in 1976; which originated from the Ebola River Valley in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). EVD is a severe, often fatal disease affecting humans, and nonhuman primates. Outbreaks occur in Africa affecting mostly the central and western portions of the continent. Formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, but the recent outbreak illustrates viruses’ ability to manifest itself withoutRead MoreEbola Epidemic : Interactions Throughout Culture, Biology And Ecology1593 Words   |  7 PagesThe 2014 Ebola Epidemic: Interactions in Culture, Biology and Ecology Introduction The geography of the 2014 Ebola epidemic The first cases of the 2014 epidemic were reported in Gueckedou Province, Guinea in March of 2014. This epidemic was the most geographically extensive outbreak within a single country. The first recorded outbreak occurred in simultaneous outbreaks in Democratic Republic of Congo (then Zaire) and Sudan in 1976, killing 280 out of 318 cases. (MSF UK, 2016) Fruit bats are consideredRead MoreThe Effects Of Policies Regarding Evaluation And Management Of The Ebola Virus Disease1569 Words   |  7 PagesThe Effect of Policies Regarding Evaluation and Management of Possible Ebola Patients in the Emergency Department In March 2014, the Ministry of Health in Guinea notified the Africa Regional Office of the World Health Organization of a new outbreak of the Ebola Virus Disease [EVD]. As of December 2, 2014, this recent Ebola outbreak has seen 10,708 confirmed infections and 6,055 deaths, with the hardest hit countries being West African countries of Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia (Centers for DiseaseRead MoreEbola Is A Deadly Virus Disease853 Words   |  4 Pages Ebola is a deadly virus disease that is transmitted through direct contact with contaminated surfaces or bodily fluids of humans or animals, (â€Å"Ebola virus disease,† 2016). It is not entirely known exactly how Ebola works in the body, but scientists have theories, (â€Å"What Does Ebola Do to the Body,† 2016). An article by Servick (2014) states that once it has entered the body, the virus attacks the victim’s dendritic cells, which activates the body’s T cells, so the body is unable to fend off the di sease

Study Skills for Distance Learning - 8547 Words

Study Skills for Distance Learning Theme A BSc.(Hons) Engineering Management Degree Subject: Study Skills A report on the existing study skills of the author and areas where he can improve and develop his long distance work based learning techniques to successfully complete the Engineering Management BSc. (Hons.) Degree. Contents Page Title Page Content Page 1 Introduction 2 Learning Outcomes for Study Skills Module One Figure 1 3 Activity One Developing learning independence 4 Activity One Developing learning independence continued 5 Develping Yourself as an independent learner Questionaire 6 Develping Yourself as an independent learner Questionaire continued 7 Develping Yourself as an†¦show more content†¦The most revealing of these are the SWOT analysis threats and weaknesses which need to be overcome to limit the impact or impede a student’s academic progress through to completion of the BSc (Hons) Engineering Management degree. Through the process of completing these tasks the student will gain a strong understanding of distance learning skills which will be of great advantage throughout the degree course, maintaining focus, motivation, with in-time work and achieving good grades. In figure one are the learning outcomes the author aims to demonstrate. LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR STUDY SKILLS – MODULE 1 Identify the situations in which you learn most effectively Assess your individual Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats and mitigate them appropriately Locate information relevant to studies from a variety of sources and use a range of media to retrieve it Apply effective research skills and strategies by engaging in primary research in the workplace Use appropriate self management strategies to plan, manage and successfully complete a project Use the process of reflection to enhance your ability to learn Evaluate your progress towards becoming an independent learner and have an effective action plan for future development Figure 1: Learning Outcomes for Module One (Howitt, 2012, pg 6). Activity 1. Developing LearningShow MoreRelatedThe History Of Distance Education Can Be Seen In Mid 1940S1103 Words   |  5 Pages The history of distance education can be seen in mid 1940s when Sir Isaac Pittman founded a Correspondence College in England in which course material was delivered freely (Silverton, 2011). Over the years this form of education spread to other countries such as Germany, Australia and Canada until the world witnessed the establishment of the world s first exclusively distance teaching university, the University of South Africa (UNISA) in 1946 (Tait, 2003). Distance education can be seen as aRead MoreThe Impact Of Digital Technology On Academic Study871 Words   |  4 Pages Digital technology leads to success in academic study In the last 30 years, IT technology has become more integrated in educational institutions. Currently, many educational institutions are focused in the use of technology such as; online discuss forum, academic websites, PowerPoint presentation and use of audio-visual aid. Moreover, technology helps students to achieve their intended goal to meet success. For the purpose of this essay, the term technology means materials, digital tools, electronicRead MoreThe Impact Of Digital Technology On Academic Study883 Words   |  4 PagesQuestion: Digital technology lead to success in academic study In the last 30 years, IT technology has become more integrated in educational institutions. Currently, many educational institutions are focused on the use of technology such as; online discuss forum, academic websites, PowerPoint presentation and use of audio-visual aid. Moreover, technology helps students to achieve their intended goal to meet success. For the purpose of this essay, the term technology means materials, digital toolsRead MoreEmotional Intelligence : Can It Be Taught At Distance Learning Mba Programs?1055 Words   |  5 PagesIntelligence: Can it be taught in Distance Learning MBA Programs? Today, managers need more than just top notch technical and intellectual skills. Leaders in healthcare, business and technology are learning that successful managers need high Emotional Quotient (EQ) or Emotional Intelligence (EI) to work effectively. This paper will define EQ and EI and then explore why these skills improve workplace functioning. This paper will also explore whether distance learning programs can effectively teachRead MoreThe Current Era Of Education Essay1711 Words   |  7 Pageshis abilities and quickly learn and according to his previous experience and skills, however, despite these advantages, this type of education continues to live its beginnings and face obstacles and challenges In front of basic education which is considered a key stepping stone to other educational projects that give learner leadership capabilities, and is an important period in behavior modification, and acquire new skills for that little child by nature loving and eager to acquire kno wledge and experienceRead MoreThe Adult Learner and Online Competency Essay1440 Words   |  6 PagesAs an adult learner in an online learning environment, a certain amount of readiness skills will be necessary. The measure of readiness skills required to flourish within the online environment will be addressed. The current study sought to ascertain whether a relationship exists between readiness levels of the online learning students for online learning and the perceived structure and interplay in online learning environments. (Kaymak Horzum, 2013). Various information shall be presentedRead MoreDistance Learning Uses Online Capabilities to Provide High-Quality Education700 Words   |  3 PagesDistance learning capabilities have benefited students and employers for many years. Correspondence schools, providing coursework through mail, have existed for over one hundred years. Distance learning makes available higher education to the non-traditional student. Degree seekin g students’ demand for online curriculum has driven growth for this type of distance learning capability. Now offered by reputable universities, online campuses make available quality education for the full time workerRead MoreBenefits Of Distance Education1704 Words   |  7 PagesOnline learning provides endless resources for students and teachers alike and the freedom to maintain a schedule that is not based off of class times. The freedom to decide when to study is nice, but it can also prevent one from developing new friendships. In classrooms, students are given the chance to talk and form both friendships and study groups. While distance education may lower the possibility of forming new friendships, it does eliminate the distractions often found in classrooms. ClassroomRead MoreThe Effect Of Readiness Level And Social Presence On The Online Learning Environment Essay1065 Words   |  5 Pageschapter, related literature is reviewed; particularly several studies have demonstrated the effect of readiness level and social presence in the online learning environment. In this chapter shows related opinions of pervious researchers and they support the aim of the current is guided by the objectives as outlined in chapter one and will establish differed opinions, theoretical approach and how the entire literature relates this study. The use of secondary sources such as published peer-reviewedRead MoreThe Distance Learning Program Is Not A New Instructional As It Has Really Been Since The 1700s?1746 Words   |  7 PagesDistance-learning program is not a new instructional as it has really been since the 1700s. However, traditional education styles that the teacher standing in front of a classroom is still the mainstream of education at the present. Distance learning has a satisfied and limits faced by teacher but it focuses on student’s requirements and have to use computer and Internet to communicate between learner and teacher. In te rm of traditional education are related with experience teaching for example,

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Voltaire and the Enlightenment Essay - 1364 Words

Voltaire and the Enlightenment During the eighteenth century a group of French writers and critics known as the Philosophes favored change and reform. They believed in the power of the human mind, which was an idea that was inspired by the Scientific Revolution. The philosophes had faith in the power of rational criticism to challenge the tradition of the past. They also sought to apply the rules of reason and common sense to nearly all major institutions and social practices. The philosophes proposed a new kind of organized religion, a social religion which encouraged harmony and tolerance while strengthening the bonds of moral obligations within society. One of the major French philosophes during the eighteenth century was Voltaire.†¦show more content†¦Voltaire stressed the need for people to use reason to make decisions about life. Throughout Voltaires life, he inspired people to use their reason to make decisions about religion. He believed in social religion which was the belief in God and in a world of future rewards and punishments.3 Social religion was as old as creation and believed by most people. However, it did contradict organized Christianity with its miracles, supernatural doctrines, and its religious duties. Voltaire made many attacks on the Bible and historic churches. He focused on the contradictions in the Bible and the improbabilities of miracles. The greatest of his attacks was on the Old Testament. Voltaire doubted the existence of Moses, said that the Pentateuch was absurd, and believed the Old Testament was just a collection of fables. On the other hand, he also attacked the New Testament. He called Jesus a good fellow, a coarse peasant, and a fanatic.4 Many people read Voltaires writings on religion and so there was much dispute and conflict among the church. His attacks on the Bible made people think and use reason in their lives. Voltaire believed in God and that an afterlife was the most powerful force of moral constraint within society, but as a philosophe he believed in the modern view of deism.5 Through the socialization of deism, social religion wasShow MoreRelatedVoltaire and The Enlightenment1142 Words   |  5 Pagesbecause of The Enlightenment. The Enlightenment was revolutionary because of Voltaire, a writer that used his ideas to attack the established Catholic Church, and to propagate the freedom of religion, scientific thoughts, skepticism and experiential philosophy. Voltaire was born in 1694, a year that was under the regiment of Louis XIV. At that time, the aristocracy ruled France in an extreme way that most commoners were struggling in poverty. From a middle-class family, Voltaire did not like theRead MoreThe Age Of Enlightenment By Voltaire1572 Words   |  7 Pages1. Do some research on Voltaire and his beliefs as well as the era in which he wrote, which was the Age of Enlightenment. Be sure to cite your sources of information. The Age of Enlightenment occurred from the 1620s until the 1780s. This movement began in England, and steadily spread almost worldwide before long. The term Enlightenment was used to contrast the Dark Ages, a time in which innovation and free-thinking was at an all-time low. Voltaire’s French philosophy included free-thinking andRead MoreMontetesquieu And Voltaire And The Enlightenment844 Words   |  4 Pagesthe continent throughout the eighteenth century. This development of new thinking was known as the Enlightenment. Philosophers of the time, commonly known as philosophes, sought to bring new information and ideas to the people of Europe and the world. Ultimately, these ideas pertained to all parts of society, including the government, economic policies, and religion. The continuation of Enlightenment attitudes reinforced faith in the ideas of change and progress through entertaining completely newRead MoreVoltaire s Candide And The Enlightenment Period1155 Words   |   5 PagesCandide was written by French Enlightenment writer Franà §ois-Marie Arouet, more popularly known as Voltaire. This book was published in January of 1789 in Paris, France by Sirà ¨ne. This satire was written during the Enlightenment period, and it displayed some of Voltaire’s criticisms toward the church, society and a multitude of other subjects. My teacher chose this book for the class because it exhibits the point of view of a famous philosopher in the Enlightenment period, which we studied alongRead MoreVoltaire s Theory Of The Age Of Enlightenment848 Words   |  4 Pagescommonly known as Voltaire was born November 21, 1699, in Paris, France. He was a French philosopher, historian and writer of the Age of Enlightenment. He valued the right to have your own thoughts as well as the ability to change religion. Even though he was a complex person, he was highly intelligent, humorous and his writing style made him one of France s greatest writers and philosoph ers. He supported social reform, including freedom of religion, civil rights and free trade. Voltaire had a rough relationshipRead MoreThe Age Of Enlightenment By Voltaire And Economist Adam Smith844 Words   |  4 Pages The Age of Enlightenment brought forth some of history’s greatest philosophers who introduced and provided the arguments for contemporary thought and social systems in continued use today. Although historians consider the ideas of natural rights and separation of powers in democracies of the highest order of importance, the economic theories developed by the leading thinkers of the era pervade daily life in all societies. The idea of wealth is timeless, but philosopher Voltaire and economist AdamRead MoreVoltaire s Candide : The Enlightenment Principle Of Reason1201 Words   |  5 Pagesfour values of the Enlightenment: hope, progress, natural law, and reason. Being a man of the enlightenment, it makes sense for Voltaire’s novel to include these values. Using ironic humor and satire, Voltaire managed to say what he needed to say without bein g directly responsible for having said it. As Candide reads like an adventure story, there is a lot of dialogue between characters. Through these conversations and stories, Voltaire’s Candide shows support for the enlightenment principle of reasonRead MoreThe Age Of Enlightenment Ideas Lead To Hypocrisy In Candide By Voltaire1592 Words   |  7 PagesAge of Enlightenment ideas lead to hypocrisy in Candide? The â€Å"Age of Reason†, during Europe was a time in history where people started to confide in eachother and themselves when it came to reason and logic; and it was a period when creative ability came to light and it was encouraged. This paper will examine Voltaire s Candide and the way Voltaire mocks religion and how this outlines Enlightenment thought. A decent approach to portray Candide may be the ethical quality play by Voltaire with noRead MoreVoltaire s Candide : The Enlightenment And The Intellectual Spearhead Of The French Revolution1118 Words   |  5 PagesInspired by the bold ideas that coincided with the French enlightenment, writer Franà §ois-Marie Arouet, more popularly known as Voltaire, wrote Candide, published in January of 1789 in Paris, France by Sirà ¨ne. Voltaire became known as the â€Å"fountainhead of the Enlightenment and the intellectual spearhead of the French Revolution†Ã‚ ² with his bold ideas that challenged society’s way of thinking. This satire was written during the Enlightenment period and demonstrated Voltaire’s criticisms toward theRead MoreVoltaire s Candide : A Critique Of Politics And Religion During The Age Of Enlightenment1500 Words   |  6 Pages When Franà §ois-Marie Arouet, better known by his pen-name Voltaire, secretly published Candide, ou l Optimisme simul taneously in five European countries in January of 1759, it was met with widespread denouncement due to its controversial content and scandalous portrayal of politics and religion. Nevertheless, the bitingly satirical novel fervently spread throughout Europe and was translated into several more languages, selling tens of thousands of copies within its first year of publication (Barnes)

Essay On Shakespeare s The Scarlet Letter - 1909 Words

The Role of Symbolism in The Scarlet Letter Hawthorne’s use of Symbolism in the story The Scarlet Letter adds immense depth and meaning to the story. The use of symbols help authors express complex ideas without using as many words. A symbol is an object that represents or stands for something else, especially a material object representing something abstract. Symbols in stories help convey the idea of a story in a more expressive way. They help you to show your story to the readers, instead of just telling it. Themes can sound too preachy and stories can sound too shallow. Symbolism weaves the two together and helps to portray a theme while writing a story. â€Å"The symbol expands and adds to our levels of understanding (Roberts, Edgar).†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦show more content†¦To each of the characters, it had a deeper meaning. It represented the shame in their lives. In this symbol, we can view two different sides of the meaning of shame. The community sees Hester as a fallen, sinful woman and Dimmesdale as a saint. The first example is seen in the way Hester wears her scarlet letter. She wears it on her clothes for everybody around her to see. People see her and look down on her because when they see it, they see her sin. When people look at Hester, their gaze is not on her face and who she is, but it is on the letter on her chest. People no longer know her by her name, but by her sin. She wears her shame and it identifies her wherever she goes. Hawthorne shows us this at one instance in the book. â€Å"When strangers looked curiously at the scarlet letter, they branded it afresh into Hester’s soul: so that oftentimes, she could scarcely refrain, yet always did refrain from covering the symbol with her hand.† The word â€Å"branded† develops the idea that the letter is sealed to her soul and is now a part of who she is. Her shame is an outward form of shame, and the cold, criticizing hearts of the people around her are her punishment. Another example of what shame can be is found in another use of symbolism. Dimmesdale suffers from a much different form of shame. He wears his scarlet letter on his chest, not outwardly on his clothing. Nobody knows of the letter except for Dimmesdale

Barbera Kingsolvers Essay Example For Students

Barbera Kingsolvers Essay In her home town, we could say that Newt Hardbine was seen as her double, people used to think they were brother and sister: If you were to look at the two of us , myself and Newt side by side in the sixth grade, you could have pegged us for brother and sister. 6 Their lives were so similar as well and seemed to move in a parallel direction until Newt Hardbine get killed which enables Taylor to break free. The motif of rebirth is also seen when Taylors mother, Alice, is finally separated from her only daughter and motherhood is passed on at the same moment when an unplanned woman appears and leaves her a baby. Take this baby, she said. 7 This is quite ironic since she has been avoiding pregnancy her whole life. Turtle starts off being so still Taylor thought she was dead, After a while I began to wonder if it was dead. Maybe the woman had a dead child, murdered or some such thing, and had put it in my car, and I was riding down the road beside it, talking to it. 8 This foreshadows that something terrible has happened to Turtle, which we later on learn that she has been sexually abused. When I pulled off the pants and the diapers there were more bruises. Bruises and worse. The Indian child was a girl. A girl, poor thing. The fact had already burdened her short life with a kind of misery I could not imagine. 9 Kingsolver wants us to see Turtle as a representative of all women and how life is already so difficult because of their gender. This has great meaning to why Turtle seems like an unusual child, she has been robbed of a part of herself that she will never get back. However as the novel progresses; Turtle begins to trust Taylor and starts to feel comfortable in the presence of the little family she is in. This is shown when Turtle makes her first sound: She did a somersault. I think that sound was a laugh. It must have been true. She was hanging on to Lou Anns boob tube for dear life, and smiling. We both stared at her. Then we stared at the tailgate of the truck in front of us, stopped dead in the road. What in the tarnation? Lou Ann asked. I said I didnt know. Then I said, look. In the road up ahead there was a quail, the type that has one big feather spronging out the front of its head like forties-model ladies hat. We could make out that she was dithering back and forth in the road, and we gradually could see that there were a couple dozen babies running around her every which way. 10 The quail and her babies evoke this laugh which comes out of Turtle, and this view almost made Taylor cry, due to the fact that this has the sentimental value of family and trust. Throughout the novel we are shown how Turtle feels through birds, since she still does not speak very much. Later on in the novel we are shown how badly Turtle was abused when the doctor comes back with the x-rays: He put up more x-rays in the window, saying things like spiral fibular fracture here and excellent healing and some contraindications for psychomotor development. I couldnt really listen. I looked through the bones to the garden on the other side. There was a cactus with bushy arms and a coat of yellow spines as thick as fur. A bird had built her nest in it. In and out she flew among the horrible spiny branches, never once hesitating. 11 The bird symbolizes the pain in which Turtle has gone through, she had built a home with her family and even after the way they treated her, she would not hesitate to come back home. It gives the reader an idea of how strong Turtle is and how she as well as the rest of human kind can thrive through tough times. .u48411969077e07ff4d1daae747c0178a , .u48411969077e07ff4d1daae747c0178a .postImageUrl , .u48411969077e07ff4d1daae747c0178a .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u48411969077e07ff4d1daae747c0178a , .u48411969077e07ff4d1daae747c0178a:hover , .u48411969077e07ff4d1daae747c0178a:visited , .u48411969077e07ff4d1daae747c0178a:active { border:0!important; } .u48411969077e07ff4d1daae747c0178a .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u48411969077e07ff4d1daae747c0178a { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u48411969077e07ff4d1daae747c0178a:active , .u48411969077e07ff4d1daae747c0178a:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u48411969077e07ff4d1daae747c0178a .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u48411969077e07ff4d1daae747c0178a .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u48411969077e07ff4d1daae747c0178a .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u48411969077e07ff4d1daae747c0178a .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u48411969077e07ff4d1daae747c0178a:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u48411969077e07ff4d1daae747c0178a .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u48411969077e07ff4d1daae747c0178a .u48411969077e07ff4d1daae747c0178a-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u48411969077e07ff4d1daae747c0178a:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Cult Conversion: Freewill Or Brainwashing? EssayWhile Turtle grows to trust her new family, she begins to speak, her first word being bean12 which is very symbolic to the title of the novel. Bean refers very much to the women in the novel who start off not so well but then grow past it and become stronger, just like a bean tree can grow in non- fertile soil, meaning it has to strive to grow. This could also be a symbol of the characters growing in unity with each other, since a bean tree has a symbiotic relationship with zhizobia which help transport nutrients for the tree. Another character, Ismene is mentioned in the novel but never physically there. We are foreshown that something horrible has happened to Ismene when Esperanza first sees Turtle: Esperanza was just stepping out of the cab, and when she saw the kids she fell back against the seat, just as if shed been hit with twenty-eight pounds of air. 13 This demonstrates that Turtle obviously has a great effect on Esperanza which we later on learn is due to the fact that her child was taken away. Ismene in other words represents Turtles dark twin, since we learn that they are almost identical. she looked {Turtle} very much like a child we knew in Guatemala. 14 She is a symbol of what could have happened to Turtle if Taylor had not rescued her, in other words she is an embodiment of all abandoned children in the world. When she is mentioned by her parents we can see the pain in which they have to have let her go due to political corruption: A god damn hook. He was looking away from me again. Sometimes, after a while, usually. These children are adopted. 15Although Turtle was abandoned, she continues to strive throughout the novel; however there is a crescendo foreshown when Taylor is out of the house and she witnesses a snake in the dessert: I didnt know they could get up in trees, I said. Sure, theyll {rattle snakes} climb. After birds eggs. 16 This symbolizes that as soon as Turtle has managed to grown strong like a tree, she is still going to be attacked by an invader; hence the birds eggs symbolizing Turtle. This soon after is proven when Turtle gets attacked in the park by a pedophile, she is back into the same state she was in the beginning of the novel. Open the screen door, I commanded Virgie. Its locked, you have to flip that little latch. Now hold it open. Slowly I moved in on the terrified bird, which clinging sideways to the screen. You could see its little heart beating through the feathers. I had heard of birds having heart attacks from fright. Easy does it, I said. Easy, were not going to hurt you, we just want to set you free.

Separation Parents During Childhood Trauma -Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Separation Parents During Childhood Trauma? Answer: Introduction: Bushfires are one of the one of the most disasters natural disaster that arises due to the extreme weather conditions; it can be lightning storm, unattended back brining or uncontrolled fire, which gives rise in the bushfires (Lohm Davis, 2015), . These disasters not only posses threats to the environment, moreover affects lot of individuals who lives in rural areas due to the proximity to the areas, which are prone to the bushfires. Occurrence of bushfire can be seen at a large scale in Australia owing to its arid and dry landscape. Dry weather condition of Australia gives fume to the sustainability of the bushfires and due this, magnitude of the disaster gets aggravated largely (Underwood, 2017). One of the horrific incidents of the bushfire in Australia is known as the Black Saturday, which took place on 7th February of 2009. There were more than four hundred cases of fire on that day, which was effect of dry climatic condition and temperature of 46.40C temperature of that day. I t cost the country 460,000 hectares of destroyed land and 78 or more affected communities. Bushfire possess substantial threat toward the healthcare system and the scenario is same with Australia to. For instance, Black Saturday caused 414 casualties and 13 deaths, which suppress the figures of Ash Wednesday that took place 26 years ago in 1983 (Bryant, et al., 2014). According to the estimations, bushfires in Australia from 1983 to 2009 has caused the country almost $ billion AUD (Booth, Tranter Eriksen, 2015). Moreover, Australian psychological institutes argue that bushfire in the country has victimised many people, who now suffer from mental and physical trauma due to exposure to the extensive heat (Gibbs et al., 2015). Coming to the environmental implication of the bushfire in Australia, it can has been estimated that almost one third of the countrys pollution is produced do this natural disaster. Ever growing instance of bushfire in the country possesses significant damage to the property, health as well as mental problem to the Australian citizens. This report incl udes systematic approach to search appraising and synthesising the literature it is aimed to discuss bushfire preparedness, recovery guidelines and responses. Besides this, the report will provide focus on the psychological impacts of the bushfires and provides recommendation to deal with this disaster. Methods: This report is based according to the PRISMA guideline using the systematic review of the published journals (Fleming, Koletsi Pandis, 2014). A comprehensive literature review has been done from the relevant documents, which are published during the year 1950 to 2017. Key words for searching relevant documents for literature review has been done base on the key publication found during the preliminary screening process. Search terms: For the search strategy, search terms used are as follows: Bush fire Bushfire Forest fire Wildfire For the exposure of the study, search terms used are as follows: Psychopathology Post traumatic Stress Disorder PTSD Social welfare Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Mental health Post traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Information of sources: Research for appropriate documents has been done mainly from four databases, which are: PubMed an online database for biomedical and life science literature PsycINFO an online database for mental health care and behavioural science Scopus an online database that provides comprehensive literature on medicine, science, arts, social science, technology and humanities Google Scholar an online database that provides literature on various fields like medicine, science, technology, arts, humanities and others Web of Science Another online database provides literature on science, medicine, technologies Besides this, additional references for the literature related to bushfire in Australia has been sourced from the papers and journals published. Eligibility criteria: The report is based on the peer-reviewed articles based on the bushfire and its social impacts, which were published between 1950 to 2017. The researcher has used only those articles for detailed screening which sets the predetermined criteria for selection (Moher et al., 2015). As the benchmark of selection, the researcher has decided that only those articles, which are written in English completely , will be selected. Besides this, the researcher has omitted those articles, which describes bushfire of other countries rather than Australia, describes the impact of bushfire on animal kind excluding human. Additionally, conference abstract, non-research publication, grey literature, and unpublished studies has been omitted for the discussion. However, sources like CDC, WHO has been used in this report for proper explanation. Study selection: Following the PRISMA template, the report has identified only 9 articles through multi-tier screening process. Primarily titles of the article was analysed, then the abstract and later the strength of the paper has been assessed for proper selection of the study. Risk of biasness: Bush fire provides a huge impetus to the economy the risk of biasness has been reduce using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programs. Results: The study identified 522potential papers for the screening and out of them, the researches has selected 9 articles that fulfil the inclusion criteria as decided for the mini-systematic review. Details regarding the selected article has been summarised in the appendix (table 2). Out of the 711 papers, 139 was sourced from PsychINFO, 159 were from Pubmed, 183 from Scopus, 42 from Google Scholar and 188 from Web of Science. Besides this, the report has used external sources for finding the best studies, which is related to the bushfire. Mortality: Australia has faced 50 major bushfires since 1851, which has caused the country loss of 4 billion AUD, and 450,000 hectare of land (Jackson et al., 2016). Besides this, according to the Australian Government Attorney general Department, every year there is at least 16 mortalities recorded every year due to bushfire. Medical issues related to bushfire: There are very few documents regarding the bushfire in Australia and this has constrained the further research on this context (Moskwa et al., 2016). Without documentation of time and nature of medical support to the bushfires in the country, it has been quiet impossible for the researchers to accurately jot down the time of response. Most of the studies regarding the bushfire has centralised their discussion in US context that has lead it more troublesome situation (Parker, 2016). The Richardson and Kumar have done one of the best studies regarding the bushfire response time of Australia. According to their studies, injury to receipt of first aid took 2.17 hours (SD=2.80), who were taken to the Canberra Hospital and the mean time for ambulance arrival is 2.16 hours with SD of 2.02. According to their study mean time of admission was 6.62 hours with SD of 4.92 (Holmes et al., 2017). Among the 9 selected studies, only two discuss the repercussive psychological issue of bushfire in Australia. Study of McFarlane discussed the adjustments for children during post disaster and another article by Pfitzer et al. (2016) discuss the effect of bushfire on the maternal stress and its outcomes. According to the research of McFarlane, there were significant rise of behavioural and emotional issues, represented by the higher Rutter scores for the children who are exposed to the bushfire compared to the children who are unexposed (t=3.79, p0.001) (Bryant et al., 2017). According to multiple regression analysis, it has been seen that life events significantly do not contribute anything to the variance in the number o problems, which are face by the children due to bushfire (F=0.12, df=3, P=0.95) (Campos et al., 2016). On the other hand according to the study of ODonnell, bushfire has resulted in enhanced number of male cohort as compared to the subsequent years before prior to 2003 ((F=5.73, df=2, P= 0.003) for newborns and (F=1.58, df = 2, P=0.01) for the neonates). According to the studies of ODonnell, there was slight reduction in mean weight of children, whose mother is exposed to the bushfire compared to the mothers who are not (Fergusson Boden, 2014). Mean weight of children whose mother are exposed to the bushfire is 3454g, compared to the children, whose mother is not exposed to the bushfire is 3460g (Liu et al., 2015). However, same study has found that there is significant amount of relationship between the gestational age and bushfire exposure. Mitigation of psychological factors: One of the rising relevant topics for research is identification of the psychological barriers and effective preparedness (Paton Johnston, 2017). Besides this mitigation, strategy is another important field that need to be taken care of. Among the ten identified studies, fours have examined the different factors that affect the risk perception of bushfire. According to the McNeill et al. There is negative relationship between the positive preparedness and risk severity for all the studies. Preparation of defence of bushfire is (=0.18, p0.0018), preparation for evacuation is (=0.26, p0.0018) and resilience house (=0.23, p0.0018), and variables for planning (=-0.15, p0.0018). Moreover, warning reliability and electricity loss to the resilience house (=-0.11, p 0.0018) and resilience of house (=-0.11, p0.0018) respectively is statistically significant. Besides this, various researches has identified trait anxiety as a mediator towards the preparedness, with variance of (=-0.086). Accor ding to the studies, there is lack of government coordination and cross agency support is absent. This has given rise in problematic situation of bushfire in Australia. According to the study, sufferer, who is severely affected by the bushfire Black Friday, is either under age of 12 years or aged more than 70 years (Douglas, 2016). This has leaded them towards the chronic disability and special care is needed to be taken in order to nurse them. One of the potent solutions for mitigating the psychological trauma of the people who has suffered from the bushfire can be implementation of predetermined and structured screening criteria (Lohm Davis, 2015). This would be tasked to find out any special need to control the devastating effect of the bushfire and ring the alarm bell well before it is going to take place considering the environmental and circumstantial evidences. This will not only aid fire prone areas to control the magnitude of casualties and loss of wealth in their area, moreover it will help to suppress the disaster as well. According to the study of Anton et al. Humans are the key factors for preparedness and mitigation of the disaster and cross sectional analysis of data proves it (adjusted R2 = 0.130, F (5, 144) = 5.46, p0.05) (Rigby, 2016). Psychological screening: Psychological intervention is necessary during the self-administrated test post exposure to the bushfire situation. Most of the studies on the Australian bushfire have used data of school going children to assess the effectiveness of the self-reporting. For this purpose Acute Stress Disorder Scale (PTSD), based on DSM-IV criteria has been introduced and it reflected successful prediction (Rich et al., 2016). PTSD prediction according to the ASDS has displayed 95% good sensitivity compared to the score of 91% for the children who are exposed to the bushfire and most importantly there are 33% children who are at risk due to PTSD (Bassilios et al., 2016). Statistically PTSD scores are related with the bushfire and depending upon the level of severity, score level are as follows: (t (197) = 6.21, P 0.001) - Going to die, (t (79) = 5.60, P 0.001) family will no more. These scores have been derived from the high school students, and there might be case of gender biasness and all the studi es lacks clinical verifications of the fact. Discussion: Until now, it has been clear that bushfire is highly related with the psychopathology. Bushfire can not only affect the environment, moreover causes repercussion affect on pregnancy, cause weight loss for the new born and bring in post trauma syndrome. Self-administrated screening will allow efficient post disaster response and effective intervention of psychological effect (Bryant et al., 2017). Further studies on the effect of the bushfire has portrayed long term consequences bushfire exposure and importance of chronic change in emotional as well as behavioural changes in the children. Generational repercussions and PTSD cause disturbance lead to childhood disturbance and psychological disturbance for the parents (Bryant et al., 2014). As discussed by the ODonnell, physical repercussion of PTDS and correlation with PTSD also supports the generational effect. Problem of bushfire management: Bushfire is one of the drastic natural disaster that let many people become homeless and landless. Thus, bushfire management is necessary in order to control any situation like this. However, successive government change has failed to provide any clear roadmap for this purpose. One of the major reasons for the lack of bushfire management is the lack of proper researches regarding the Australian bushfire. However, recent researches and government initiation to bring in wildfire control mechanism is limelight for the people of Australia (Douglas, 2016). One of the main problems of bushfire management is lack of fund from the government and it has lead to lower number of research and development. Though there has been attempts to the bushfire management, however, it has failed because the framework does not include psychological factors and post bushfire exposure scenario; rather it focuses on the factors that are mainly associated with the monetary value of the loss (Florec et al., 201 6). Psychological influences of bushfires: Studies suggest that the bushfire possess high level of PTSD due to magnitude and reach. According to the researches, PTSD is persistent for the 30 to 40% of people who were exposed to the bushfire (Fergusson Boden, 2014). Moreover, it has also been seen that 42% of the people who were exposed to the bushfire like Black Saturday are now going through psychiatric diagnosis. Because most of them suffer from anxiety, PTSD, depression and other physical challenges as discussed by the McNeill et al. Considering this facts, it can be stated that there is huge psychological influence of bushfire and it can lean to persistent physical and mental issues. Limitation: Throughout the study, most of the authors analysed the magnitude, reason and mitigation for the casualty of bushfire, and they are constrained to make any comparison between the reason, effect and mitigation plan beyond the geographical boundaries. Moreover, intrinsic nature of the studies available for the effect of bushfire in Australia is self-assessment rather than systemic review. Moreover, most of the studies have used only the voluntary represented data; thus, there is a scope that much or entire involuntary data related to bushfire is absent. This can lead to biasness in study and make the findings unjustified. For further researches though most of the researches has kept some tailed question with their outcome, however most of them has failed to provide a systematic review of the previous articles. Thus, more researches is required on the bushfire to let the people aware about it and reduce the scope of vulnerability for the people and communities who lives near to the prone areas of bushfire. Solution for Australias bushfire: Australia has faced most of the cases of bushfire since 1950. Thus, the country has evolved largely to become where it is now. From the studies, it can be chalked out that Australia has learned to control the outburst of bushfire largely, however it has not yet been effective enough to pave path for controlling the trauma post bushfire exposure. Bushfire, being a natural phenomenon cannot be controlled, however, researches show that most of the people suffer from physical and mental trauma once they are exposed to the bushfire and it affects their education, personal and work life. Thus, it is necessary for the Australian government to bring in comprehensive solution for bushfire. Recently it has been found that Australian government has brought in Community Development Approach and Centralised Case Management Service in order to reduce the psychological trauma after exposure to the bushfire. Moreover, it has been argued that government need to tune the intergovernmental connection in order to take swift response in case of bushfire. In this case, wildfire case installation for bushfire response can be beneficial rather than utilizing the age old Wait and See program. Role of NGO: Australia is one of the largest countries that provide universal health coverage to its citizens. When it comes to bushfire, then the government hospitals are the main medical institute that provide all the medical facilities to the fellow citizens (Shahparvari et al., 2017). However, when it comes to acute case of bushfire like Black Friday, then the Non Governmental organisations are one of the major players that provide wide array of services. Ranging from supplying fire fighters to providing medical assistance to the victims, NGOs play an important role and besides this, they provide psychological support to the victims of the bushfire. Wide array of services that are provided by the NGOs in the case of bushfire in Australia are as follows (Weir, 2016): Psychological support Case management service Temporary housing Community service Role of medical students: Medical student are the backbone of the medical system of a country. Without help from the medical students, it will not be possible to provide any medical service to the person who need ailment. From the above analysis, it has been clear that bushfire cause, serious physical and mental condition the survivors. Medical students can aid the survivors to attain relief both from the physical and mental aspect and aid them to lead a stable life. Better role of medical student can bring in the admission time for the patient to a much lower level and it will effectively help the Australian government to reduce the time taken for the medical service (FitzGerald, Tarrant Aitken, 2016). By implementing the rules and guidelines for bushfire patients, into the course curriculum government can teach their medical students to become potent for handling any bushfire situation and let them know what to do during the time of emergency like Black Saturday. Conclusion: The study has analysed the trend of research for modelling psychological effect of bushfire and it has found various notable points. Initially the report has found that there is huge lack of preparedness for bushfire in Australia and if the lack of coordination among the government industries remain continued, then it would bring in devastating situation for the Australian government. The study has identified there is community and regional barriers, that constrained the humans to become aware about the bushfires. Most of the current studies argue that it is better to lift the barrier up and let the community overlap the problem of bushfire with inter communal understanding. However, besides this the report argues that governmental plans and implementations are necessary. With proper long-term planning and effective implementation, it is aimed that trauma during post exposure to bushfire can greatly be reduce with the aid from NGOs and medical students. References: Bassilios, B., Nicholas, A., Reifels, L., King, K., Fletcher, J., Machlin, A., ... Pirkis, J. (2016). Achievements of the Australian Access to Allied Psychological Services (ATAPS) program: summarising (almost) a decade of key evaluation data.International journal of mental health systems,10(1), 61. Booth, K., Tranter, B., Eriksen, C. (2015). Properties under fire: why so many Australians are inadequately insured against disaster. Bryant, R. A., Creamer, M., O'Donnell, M., Forbes, D., Felmingham, K. L., Silove, D., ... Nickerson, A. (2017). Separation from parents during childhood trauma predicts adult attachment security and post-traumatic stress disorder.Psychological Medicine, 1-8. Bryant, R. A., Waters, E., Gibbs, L., Gallagher, H. C., Pattison, P., Lusher, D., ... Sinnott, V. (2014). Psychological outcomes following the Victorian Black Saturday bushfires.Australian New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry,48(7), 634-643. Campos, R. C., Holden, R. R., Laranjeira, P., Troister, T., Oliveira, A. R., Costa, F., ... Fresca, N. (2016). Self-report depressive symptoms do not directly predict suicidality in nonclinical individuals: Contributions toward a more psychosocial approach to suicide risk.Death studies,40(6), 335-349. Douglas, G. (2016). Bushfire management for private land.Nature New South Wales,60(3), 22. Fergusson, D. M., Boden, J. M. (2014). The psychological impacts of major disasters.Australian New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry,48(7), 597-599. FitzGerald, G. J., Tarrant, M., Aitken, P. (Eds.). (2016).Disaster Health Management: A Primer for Students and Practitioners. Taylor Francis. Fleming, P. S., Koletsi, D., Pandis, N. (2014). Blinded by PRISMA: are systematic reviewers focusing on PRISMA and ignoring other guidelines?.PLoS One,9(5), e96407. Florec, V., Pannell, D., Burton, M., Kelso, J., Milne, G. (2016, August). Think long term: the costs and benefits of prescribed burning in the south west of Western Australia. InResearch Forum 2016: Proceedings from the Research Forum at the Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC AFAC Conference(Vol. 30, p. 139). Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC ISBN: 978-0-9941696-6-2 September 2016. Gibbs, L., Sia, K. L., Block, K., Baker, E., Nelsson, C., Gilbert, J., ... MacDougall, C. (2015). Cost and outcomes associated with participating in the Community Fireguard Program: Experiences from the Black Saturday bushfires in Victoria, Australia.International journal of disaster risk reduction,13, 375-380. Holmes, A., Rdiger, C., Mueller, B., Hirschi, M., Tapper, N. (2017). Variability of soil moisture proxies and hot days across the climate regimes of Australia.Geophysical Research Letters. Jackson, D., Bartl, D., Tong, D., Layland, J. (2016). Bushfires, not to be Taken Light Heartedly.J Clin Exp Cardiolog,7(426), 2. Liu, J. C., Pereira, G., Uhl, S. A., Bravo, M. A., Bell, M. L. (2015). A systematic review of the physical health impacts from non-occupational exposure to wildfire smoke.Environmental research,136, 120-132. Lohm, D., Davis, M. (2015). Between bushfire risk and love of environment: preparedness, precariousness and survival in the narratives of urban fringe dwellers in Australia.Health, Risk Society,17(5-6), 404-419. McNeill, I. M., Dunlop, P. D., Skinner, T. C., Morrison, D. L. (2015). Predicting delay in residents decisions on defending v. evacuating through antecedents of decision avoidance.International Journal of Wildland Fire,24(2), 153-161. Moher, D., Shamseer, L., Clarke, M., Ghersi, D., Liberati, A., Petticrew, M., ... Stewart, L. A. (2015). Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement.Systematic reviews,4(1), 1. Moskwa, E. C., Ahonen, I., Santala, V., Weber, D., Robinson, G. M., Bardsley, D. K. (2016). Perceptions of bushfire risk mitigation and biodiversity conservation: a systematic review of fifteen years of research.Environmental Reviews,24(3), 219-232. Parker, A. (2016). Selective clearing of bush close to houses is the top bushfire mitigation strategy.Australian Planner,53(2), 152-155. Paton, D., Johnston, D. (2017).Disaster resilience: an integrated approach. Charles C Thomas Publisher. Pfitzer, B., Katona, L. J., Lee, S. J., O'Donnell, M., Cleland, H., Wasiak, J., Ellen, S. (2017). Three Years After Black Saturday: Long-Term Psychosocial Adjustment of Burns Patients as a Result of a Major Bushfire.JOURNAL OF BURN CARE RESEARCH,38(5), 334-334. Rich, J., Booth, A., Rowlands, A., Redd, P. (2016). Bushfire support services and the need for evaluation: The 2013 Blue Mountains experience.Australian Journal of Emergency Management, The,31(1), 8. Rigby, K. (2016). 14 Literature, ethics and bushfire in Australia.Humanities for the Environment: Integrating Knowledge, Forging New Constellations of Practice, 210. Shahparvari, S., Abbasi, B., Chhetri, P., Abareshi, A. (2017). Fleet routing and scheduling in bushfire emergency evacuation: A regional case study of the Black Saturday bushfires in Australia.Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. Underwood, R. (2017). Disaster awaits as advice again goes unheeded.News Weekly, (3006), 9. Weir, I., Leonard, J., Shackelton, C., Brinkman, J., Elliot, C. (2016). 2016 Australian Bushfire Building Conference.